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Summary form only given. Earth System models are complex numerical tools designed to study the Earth's climate system. Traditionally, climate models have focused on the physical climate system. More recently, these have transitioned to Earth System models, with the incorporation of new simulation capabilities. These enable new science on process interactions and feedbacks through the inclusion of active biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry and ice sheet components. In addition to increasing model complexity, there is an interest in better characterizing regional climate information on shorter prediction timescales. This has motivated a push towards higher spatial resolutions and initialized climate forecasts. The end result is that these modeling systems are producing increasingly large datasets for an increasing number of climate-science applications. I will discuss the models themselves, the typical simulation output that they produce, and some of the problems to which they are being applied. The challenges inherent in climate science and earth system modeling will be addressed. Finally, the new problems and opportunities that arise from an ever-increasing volume of simulation output will be discussed.