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The linearity of a high-resolution pipelined analog- to-digital converter (ADC) is mainly limited by the capacitor mismatch and the finite operational amplifier (OPAMP) gain in the multiplying-digital-to-analog converter (MDAC). Therefore, high resolution pipelined ADCs usually require high-gain OPAMP and large capacitors, which causes large ADC power. In recent years, various nonlinear calibration techniques have been developed to compensate both linear and nonlinear error from MDCAs so that low-power MDACs with small capacitors and low-gain OPAMP can be used. Hence, the ADC power can be greatly reduced. This paper introduces a novel interpolation- based digital self-calibration architecture for pipelined ADC. Compared to previous techniques, the new architecture is free of adaptation. Hence, long convergence is not needed. The complexity of the digital processor is also considerably lower. The new architecture does not use backend ADC to measure MDACs. Hence, it is free of the accumulation of measurement error, which leads to more accurate calibration. A prototype ADC with the calibration architecture is fabricated in a 0.35 3.3 V CMOS process. The ADC samples at 20 MS/s. The calibration improves the ADC DNL and INL from 1.47 LSB and 7.85 LSB to 0.2 LSB and 0.27 LSB. For a 590 kHz sinusoidal signal, the calibration improves the ADC signal-to-noise-distortion ratio(SNDR) and spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) from 41.3 dB and 52.1 dB to 72.5 dB and 84.4 dB respectively. The 11.8-ENOB 20 MS/s ADC consumes 56.3 mW power with 3.3 V supply. The 0.78 pJ/step figure-of-merit (FOM) is low for designs in 0.35 CMOS processes. At the Nyquist frequency, SNDR of the calibrated ADC drops 8 dB due to the slow settling of the first pipeline stage.
Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:59 , Issue: 3 )
Date of Publication: March 2012