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Emerging organic light-emitting diode (OLED)-based displays obviate external lighting, and consume drastically different power when displaying different colors, due to their emissive nature. This creates a pressing need for OLED display power models for system energy management, optimization as well as energy-efficient GUI design, given the display content or even the graphical-user interface (GUI) code. In this work, we study this opportunity using commercial QVGA OLED displays and user studies. We first present a comprehensive treatment of power modeling of OLED displays, providing models that estimate power consumption based on pixel, image, and code, respectively. These models feature various tradeoffs between computation efficiency and accuracy so that they can be employed in different layers of a mobile system. We validate the proposed models using a commercial QVGA OLED module and a mobile device with a QVGA OLED display. Then, based on the models, we propose techniques that adapt GUIs based on existing mechanisms as well as arbitrarily under usability constraints. Our measurement and user studies show that more than 75 percent display power reduction can be achieved with user acceptance.