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Social Signal Processing is the research domain aimed at bridging the social intelligence gap between humans and machines. This paper is the first survey of the domain that jointly considers its three major aspects, namely, modeling, analysis, and synthesis of social behavior. Modeling investigates laws and principles underlying social interaction, analysis explores approaches for automatic understanding of social exchanges recorded with different sensors, and synthesis studies techniques for the generation of social behavior via various forms of embodiment. For each of the above aspects, the paper includes an extensive survey of the literature, points to the most important publicly available resources, and outlines the most fundamental challenges ahead.