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Transparent SnO2 nanowire electric-double-layer (EDL) transistors with different antimony (Sb) doping levels are fabricated on transparent conducting glass substrates. The threshold voltage (Vth) can be effectively modulated by in situ Sb doping. Both enhancement mode and depletion mode are realized, and the Vth shift of the nanowire EDL transistors is estimated to be 0.41 V. All nanowire EDL transistors show good electrical characteristics with a high field-effect mobility (>; 100 cm2/V · s), a high drain-current on/off ratio (>; 8 × 104), and a small subthreshold slope (<; 200 mV/dec). These transparent nanowire EDL transistors are promising for “see- through” nanoscale sensors.