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In this paper the electric yield of DRAM core circuits is investigated by means of a statistical approach that incorporates a hierarchical linear Gaussian model for the DRAM core sensing process and a lognormal distribution model for the DRAM cell leakage. Analytical yield expressions are obtained and found to be dominated by two independent sources-either the lognormal distribution of the cell leakage components or the Gaussian distribution depending on the array structural parameters, parasitic, and the sense amplifier offset voltage. Analytical yield analysis is conducted for several different DRAM architectures and compared to measurements from signal margin analysis and data retention tests. The yield model is found to be very accurate. Thanks to the short computation time, it can be easily applied to the analysis and yield optimization of novel array structures, DRAM cell leakage analysis, sense amplifier offset voltage requirements, and core supply voltage optimization. It also paves the way for the design for yield of other memory circuits.
Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:58 , Issue: 12 )
Date of Publication: Dec. 2011