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Design considerations for direct-conversion receivers

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1 Author(s)
Razavi, B. ; AT&T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ, USA

This paper describes the issues and tradeoffs in the design and monolithic implementation of direct-conversion receivers and proposes circuit techniques that can alleviate the drawbacks of this architecture. Following a brief study of heterodyne and image-reject topologies, the direct-conversion architecture is introduced and effects such as dc offset, I/Q mismatch, even-order distortion, flicker noise, and oscillator leakage are analyzed. Related design techniques for amplification and mixing, quadrature phase calibration, and baseband processing are also described

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Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:44 ,  Issue: 6 )