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In most countries, especially in deltas, there is a long tradition in the management of water resource systems, in particular related to structural measures such as the construction of dikes and riverine/coastal hydraulic structures. We discuss how this infrastructure can be supported and managed in order to serve as non-structural measures. Therefore, we present a review about technology for the prediction and control of water resources. This covers techniques for flow and water quality forecasting including modeling and data assimilation as well as its combination with predictive controllers for managing hydraulic structures. These techniques are discussed both from a conceptual and technical perspective. Furthermore, we give an overview about ongoing and future work in this field, which is aimed at integrating the techniques from both the water prediction and the water control community.