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The Impact of Node Selfishness on Multicasting in Delay Tolerant Networks

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6 Author(s)
Yong Li ; State Key Laboratory on Microwave and Digital Communications, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China ; Guolong Su ; Dapeng Oliver Wu ; Depeng Jin
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Due to the uncertainty of transmission opportunities between mobile nodes, delay tolerant networks (DTNs) exploit the opportunistic forwarding mechanism. This mechanism requires nodes to forward messages in a cooperative and selfish way. However, in the real word, most of the nodes exhibit selfish behaviors, such as individual and social selfishness. In this paper, we are the first to investigate how the selfish behaviors of nodes affect the performance of DTN multicast. We consider two typical multicast relaying schemes, namely, two-hop relaying and epidemic relaying, and study their performance in terms of average message transmission delay and transmission cost. Specifically, we model the message delivery process under selfish behaviors by a 3-D continuous time Markov chain; under this model, we derive closed-form formulas for the message transmission delay and cost. Then, we evaluate the accuracy of the proposed Markov chain model by comparing the theoretical results with the simulation results obtained by simulating the message dissemination under both two-hop and epidemic relaying with different network sizes and mobility models. Our study shows that different selfish behaviors may have different impacts on different performance metrics. In addition, selfish behaviors influence epidemic relaying more than two-hop relaying. Furthermore, our results show that the performance of multicast with selfish nodes depends on the multicast group size.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology  (Volume:60 ,  Issue: 5 )