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Summary form only given. A recent resurgence of interest in new, more powerful, coherent sources of terahertz (THz) radiation (0.3-3.0 × 1012 Hz) has been driven by advances in fabrication and device physics modeling, emergence of new security threats, and application potential in high data rate communications, concealed weapon or threat detection, remote high resolution imaging, chemical spectroscopy, materials research, deep space research and communications, basic biological spectroscopy and biomedical diagnostics. This talk reviews recent advances and achievements in THz-regime vacuum electronic devices (VEDs). VEDs are intrinsically superior to solid state devices at handling high power or high power density. Development of VED sources of THz radiation has therefore primarily focused on applications calling for either high average power or high average power density, i.e., relatively high power in a compact package, and usually with the highest achievable device efficiencies. The VED source and critical enabling technology advances reviewed in this talk include EIKs, BWOs, TWTs, gyrotrons, FELs, beamline sources, microfabrication and cathodes.