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As the sophistication of intruders' increases, so does the incidents of information integrity breaches and network attacks. In response, very complex cryptographic processes have started being employed, such as chaos theory and quantum theory, in an effort to create the “holy grail” of cryptographic systems and network security. Quantum theory defines the non-classical qubit, which is the superposition of quantum states having no classical analog. It is also based on the “no cloning” and “no copying” theorem and on the Heisenberg's uncertainty. The quanto-mechanical properties of photons and the quantum mechanics provide a superb platform for communications security and particularly in secure optical communication networks, known as quantum cryptography and quantum networks, respectively. Chaos is based on the particular behavior of certain non-linear functions, which for a minute change of parameters produce a huge and unstable output, known as the “chaotic regime”. However, this chaos can be reproducible, which makes it attractive to secure communications. Thus, the combined Chaos and Quantum theories play a synergistic role in the quest for the “holy grail” in communications security. In this talk we explain with simple examples quantum cryptography and protocols, as well as chaos and chaotic processes. We also describe the synergy of chaos and quantum theories as well as the increased efficiency and speed of the quantum key establishment.