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As supercomputers scale to a million processor cores and beyond, the underlying resource management architecture needs to provide a flexible mechanism to manage the wide variety of workloads executing on the machine. In this paper we describe the novel approach of the Blue Gene/Q (BG/Q) supercomputer in addressing these workload requirements by providing resource management services that support both the high performance computing (HPC) and high-throughput computing (HTC) paradigms. We explore how the resource management implementations of the prior generation Blue Gene (BG/L and BG/P) systems evolved and led us down the path to developing services on BG/Q that focus on scalability, flexibility and efficiency. Also provided is an overview of the main components comprising the BG/Q resource management architecture and how they interact with one another. Introduced in this paper are BG/Q concepts for partitioning I/O and compute resources to provide I/O resiliency while at the same time providing for faster block (partition) boot times. New features, such as the ability to run a mix of HTC and HPC workloads on the same block are explained, and the advantages of this type of environment are examined. Similar to how Many-task computing (MTC)  aims to combine elements of HTC and HPC, the focus of BG/Q has been to unify the two models in a flexible manner where hybrid workloads having both HTC and HPC characteristics are managed simultaneously.