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This paper presents a method for tracking a secondary frequency control (Load Frequency Control) signal by groups of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), controllable thermal household appliances under a duty-cycle coordination scheme, and a decentralized combined-heat-and-power generation unit. The distribution of the control action on the participating units is performed by an aggregator utilizing a Model Predictive Control strategy which allows the inclusion of unit and grid constraints. In addition to the individual dynamic behavior, the varying availability of the units during the day is taken into account. The proposed methodology, easily extendable to larger networks, is evaluated on a four-bus system corresponding to a medium-voltage distribution grid and illustrates a possible operation mode of an aggregator in the power system.
Date of Publication: Oct. 2011