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Due to the serious condition of safety production in hydropower construction project on the whole, it is an urgent need to evaluate hydropower engineering construction safety. But the problem of the mapping relationship between evaluation index and accidents, fixed and variable weight, randomness and fuzziness and so on, can't be solved through the traditional safety evaluation method for hydraulic engineering construction safety. In that case centering on the construction process in hydropower project, safety evaluation indexes that construction couples with operation are established by introducing rough set theory, and then those indexes are simplified. Furthermore, the least evaluation index set and each coupled weight are determined in order to enable the evaluation method to have a feature of approximate function. Finally, the feasibility of this evaluation method is proved by empirical analysis. To sum up, this method is of theoretical and practical significance in safety evaluation for hydropower construction project.