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This paper introduces an adaptive calibration structure for the blind calibration of frequency response mismatches in a two-channel time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TI-ADC). By representing frequency response mismatches as polynomials, we can exploit slight oversampling to estimate the coefficients of the polynomials by using the filtered-X least-mean square (FxLMS) algorithm. Utilizing the coefficients in an adaptive structure, we can compensate frequency response mismatches including time offset and bandwidth mismatches. We develop an analytical framework for the calibration structure and analyze its performance. We show the efficiency of the calibration structure by simulations, where we include examples from the literature.