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Based on the new interval polynomial stability criterion and Lyapunov theorem, a robust optimal proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is proposed here to design for different plants that contain the perturbations of multiple parameters. A new stability criterion of the interval polynomial is presented to determine whether the interval polynomial belongs to Hurwitz polynomial. The robust optimal PID controller is acquired through minimising an augmented integral squared error (AISE) performance index. The robust optimal control problem is transformed into a non-linear constraint optimisation (NLCO) problem by applying new polynomial stability criterion and Lyapunov approach. The robust optimal PID parameters are obtained from solving the NLCO problem. The robustness and performances of the proposed method and other different tuning methods are compared. The ability of the proposed PID tuning method and other tuning methods to reject disturbances is discussed as well. The simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show better robustness of the robust optimal PID controller.