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In Japan, a project for the development of a 275-kV class YBCO power cable started in 2008. High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables typically consist of a copper former, an HTS conductor layer, an electrical insulation layer, an HTS shield layer, and a copper shield layer. In practical applications, the 275-kV class transmission line may be subjected to short-circuit fault currents such as 63 kArms for a duration of 0.6 s. Therefore, in order to ensure the stability and demonstrate the feasibility of the cable, it is important to estimate the current distribution and temperature increase under the fault condition. We designed the copper former, copper shield layer, and copper plating of the YBCO coated conductor carefully so as to fulfill the requirements of practical applications. In this study, we carried out over-current experiments on a 2-m long YBCO model cable and performed numerical simulations by a computer program developed using the finite element method (FEM) and an electric circuit model. We investigated the electromagnetic and thermal behaviors of the cable under fault conditions from the experimental and simulation results.