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Battery monitoring is vital for most electric vehicles (EVs), because the safety, operation, and even the life of the passenger depends on the battery system. This attribute is exactly the major function of the battery-management system (BMS)-to check and control the status of battery within their specified safe operating conditions. In this paper, a typical BMS block diagram has been proposed using various functional blocks. The state of charge (SOC) estimation has been implemented using Coulomb counting and open-circuit voltage methods, thereby eliminating the limitation of the stand-alone Coulomb counting method. By modeling the battery with SOC as one of the state variables, SOC can be estimated, which is further corrected by the Kalman filtering method. The battery parameters from experimental results are integrated in the model, and simulation results are validated by experiment.