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This paper investigated some chemical and physical factors which probably affect the decolorization of aqueous acid red B solution by atmospheric abnormal glow discharge. When the aqueous solution served as the cathode, effective decolorization occurred in the inert gas discharges as well as in the active gas discharges. The hydroxyl radicals were mainly responsible for the decolorization in the solution phase. The gas ionization potential may influence the decolorization effect.