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In ultra-deep submicrometer technology, soft errors and device aging are two of the paramount reliability concerns. Although many studies have been done to tackle the two challenges, most take them separately so far, thereby failing to reach better performance-cost tradeoffs. To support a more efficient design tradeoff, we propose a unified fault detection scheme - stability violation-based fault detection (SVFD), by which the soft errors (both single event upset and single event transient), aging delay, and delay faults can be uniformly dealt with. SVFD grounds on a new fault model, stability violation, derived from analysis of signal behavior. SVFD has been validated by conducting a set of intensive Hspice simulations targeting the next-generation 32-nm CMOS technology. An application of SVFD to a floating-point unit (FPU) is also evaluated. Experimental results show that SVFD has more versatile fault detection capability for fault detection than several schemes recently proposed at comparable overhead in terms of area, power, and performance.