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Audio Authenticity: Detecting ENF Discontinuity With High Precision Phase Analysis

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3 Author(s)
Rodríguez, D.P.N. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Mil. Inst. of Eng. (IME), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ; Apolinário, J.A. ; Biscainho, L.W.P.

This paper addresses a forensic tool used to assess audio authenticity. The proposed method is based on detecting phase discontinuity of the power grid signal; this signal, referred to as electric network frequency (ENF), is sometimes embedded in audio signals when the recording is carried out with the equipment connected to an electrical outlet or when certain microphones are in an ENF magnetic field. After down-sampling and band-filtering the audio around the nominal value of the ENF, the result can be considered a single tone such that a high-precision Fourier analysis can be used to estimate its phase. The estimated phase provides a visual aid to locating editing points (signalled by abrupt phase changes) and inferring the type of audio editing (insertion or removal of audio segments). From the estimated values, a feature is used to quantify the discontinuity of the ENF phase, allowing an automatic decision concerning the authenticity of the audio evidence. The theoretical background is presented along with practical implementation issues related to the proposed technique, whose performance is evaluated on digitally edited audio signals.

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Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:5 ,  Issue: 3 )