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Scale and Scope in American Key-Set Office Machine Dynamics, 1880s–1930s

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1 Author(s)
Heide, L. ; Copenhagen Business School

Industrial production of office machines emerged in the 1880s and grew extensively until the Second World War. Although sales and applications of punched-card machines expanded in the interwar years, the key-set office machine industry lost dynamics and ultimately collapsed. The lack of scale and scope improvements in the development of key-set office machines was the major reason for this sharp contrast.

Published in:

Annals of the History of Computing, IEEE  (Volume:33 ,  Issue: 3 )