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A novel ultrawideband (UWB) synchronous receiver for a UWB radar system is presented. The developed receiver is the first to employ a sampling phase detector, which integrates a step recovery diode and a pair of Schottky diodes, to sample the UWB signal of a radar, enabling the miniaturization of the design. It achieves a 6-GHz sampling bandwidth, a dynamic range of more than 50 dB, and low harmonic distortion of the output baseband signal. The receiver's down-converted IF signals closely match with their original shape, demonstrating its good performance to reconstruct the microwave signals from a receiving antenna. These IF signals can be converted to digital signals by a low-cost A/D. For verification, the performance of the UWB receiver is tested through the experiments of buried steels at different thicknesses in the sand when it is applied to the ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The results show that the GPR system has good horizontal resolution and large detection depth. Therefore, this GPR system is very attractive and effective for applications of short-range and high-resolution detection.