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This paper describes the design, and implementation of novel dual-axes confocal microscopes that use separate optical axes for illumination and collection of light. This configuration can achieve subcellular resolution (< 5 Â¿m) with deep tissue penetration (> 300 Â¿m), high dynamic range, and large field of view. Moreover, scalability down to millimeter dimensions with a diffraction limited focal volume is achieved with use of post-objective scanning, a MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) micro-mirror, and fiber optic coupling. The miniature DAC microscope operating at 785-nm-wavelength achieves full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) transverse and axial resolutions of 5 Â¿m and 6 Â¿m, respectively. This instrument can be used to perform real time histopathology in the epithelium of hollow organs for longitudinal studies in small animals.