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Wafer-level 3D integration technology

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10 Author(s)
Koester, S.J. ; IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598, USA ; Young, A.M. ; Yu, R.R. ; Purushothaman, S.
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An overview of wafer-level three-dimensional (3D) integration technology is provided. The basic reasoning for pursuing 3D integration is presented, followed by a description of the possible process variations and integration schemes, as well as the process technology elements needed to implement 3D integrated circuits. Detailed descriptions of two wafer-level integration schemes implemented at IBM are given, and the challenges of bringing 3D integration into a production environment are discussed.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

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IBM Journal of Research and Development  (Volume:52 ,  Issue: 6 )