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Based on the study of developments in many fields of computer vision, a new approach of computer vision navigation for mobile tracking robot is presented in this paper. The main steps of this approach include object recognition, distance estimation and motion capture. Although these technologies adopted seem to be irrelevant, the combination of them is effective. Interesting observations on distance estimation and motion capture are discussed in detail. The reasons resulting in error of distance estimation are analyzed. According to the models and formulas of distance estimation error, the error type could be found, which is helpful to decrease the distance error. Based on the diamond search (DS)technology applied in MPEG-4, an improved DS algorithm is developed to meet the special requirement of mobile tracking robot. Experimental results also show the validity of the approach.