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Fractional- N Phase-Locked-Loop-Based Frequency Synthesis: A Tutorial

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2 Author(s)
Pin-En Su ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA ; Pamarti, S.

The fundamentals and state of the art in fractional-N phase-locked-loop (PLL)-based frequency synthesis are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on delta-sigma fractional-N PLLs and quantization noise and fractional spur suppression techniques for wide-bandwidth applications.

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Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:56 ,  Issue: 12 )