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Two design methods of a filter in a frequency-spatial frequency (f-k) domain have been developed for bistatic ground penetrating radar. The proposed methods suppress the direct wave, which causes significant artifacts in radar images, and are evaluated by laboratory measurements. Because the geometric positions of a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna are not fixed, the suppression of a direct wave is an important issue. Then, we propose an f-k filtering approach for the solution, and present two methods to design the f-k filter. Both methods use a difference of an apparent horizontal velocity between a direct wave and a reflection from a target, and work automatically from position information of a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna. One method is to mask an f-k spectrum in a region where a spectrum of the direct wave is distributed. The region is defined from the maximum and the minimum apparent horizontal velocity of the direct wave, which are calculated from the location of the transmitting antenna and the scanning area of the receiver. As for the other method, the most essential point is applying a time shift to eliminate a difference of an arrival time of a direct wave, where the time shift is calculated beforehand from the location of the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna. Then, an apparent horizontal velocity of the direct wave becomes infinitely large due to the time shift. Thus, the f-k spectrum of the direct wave concentrates around a frequency axis because its slope is infinitely large. Then, a filter to reject the dc component in the spatial frequency direction is applied. Both methods are applied to an experimental data set which is acquired by a bistatic radar measurement to detect a buried landmine model with a depth of 10 cm. In addition, it is confirmed that they can suppress the undesired fluctuation of the images nearly one-tenth and help the rel- - iable detection of a buried object.
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:48 , Issue: 3 )
Date of Publication: March 2010