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Integrated sensors based on microelectronic technology were first developed in the late 60s for medical applications. Today they have evolved into wireless integrated microsystems (WIMS), combining micropower circuits, wireless interfaces, hermetic packaging, embedded power sources, and MEMS. Such devices are poised to provide important breakthroughs in health care. This paper traces the development of medical microsystems by looking at three of its earliest devices. Catheter-tip pressure sensors have evolved into smart stents and wireless intraocular monitors; wristwatch-size gas chromatography systems are emerging for the rapid identification of biomarkers for in breath; and neural interfaces are permitting revolutionary advances in neuroscience and in prostheses for deafness, blindness, epilepsy, paralysis, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders. The present status and remaining challenges in such devices will be described.