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With the advent of more stringent regulations related to emissions, fuel economy, and global warming, as well as energy resource constraints, electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles have attracted increasing attention from vehicle constructors, governments, and consumers. Research and development efforts have focused on developing advanced powertrains and efficient energy systems. This paper reviews the state of the art for electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles, with a focus on architectures and modeling for energy management. Although classic modeling approaches have often been used, new systemic approaches that allow better understanding of the interaction between the numerous subsystems have recently been introduced.
Date of Publication: Feb. 2010