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It is of utmost importance to improve the level of science literacy among coal mine workers in order to help prevent tragic accidents that have frequently occurred in coal mines. This paper utilizes data compiled from a survey concerning science literacy related factors among coal miners in China's main coal mining producing areas of Shanxi, Shan Dong, Hebei, Sichuan, and Heilongjiang provinces, and was based on the analysis and research of the science literacy related factors. A questionnaire and multi-stage sampling method was employed in order to investigate the following 3 aspects:1) The basic situation of the coal miners, i.e. educational background, age, salary, etc. 2) science literacy and 3) the level of science literacy in safe production and management in the coal mine. This paper further analyses the present situation, characteristics and current problems of science literacy related factors in safe coal production and mine management within the previously mentioned five coal mine provinces in China. The sampling was 5003. Lastly this investigative report proposes suggestions as to how to improve the coal miner's science literacy situation and management in the five provinces and ways to reduce the rate of coal mine disasters.