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Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images are often used for classifying and recognizing targets. Moreover, the use of fully polarimetric ISAR (Pol-ISAR) images enhances classification capabilities. In this paper, the authors propose a novel automatic target recognition (ATR) technique based on the use of fully Pol-ISAR images and neural networks (NNs). In order to reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, the brightest scattering centers are first extracted by means of the Pol-CLEAN technique, and then, their scattering matrices are decomposed using Cameron's decomposition. A classifier based on the use of multilayer perceptron NN that makes use of the features extracted from the Pol-ISAR images is then implemented. A proof-of-concept test is performed on real data acquired during a controlled experiment in an anechoic chamber.