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Drill string vibration is a very prevalent phenomena, it does great effect to drilling engineering, drill string resonance is the main reason that causes the drill string fatigue. In this paper the drill string is object that is studied, the axial vibration is analyzed for the total system of drill string. The model of axial vibration is established, the rule about axial vibration of drill string is obtained, the nature frequency of axial vibration is found out by Delphi. Then, the rule can be used in the oil field for the drilling worker, the rule can provide reliable theory for decreasing drill fatigue and optimizing drilling parameter.