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Observations of the MUF measured on a mid-latitude path are compared to predictions made by VOACAP. In general, 80% of the observations are within a few MHz of the prediction, although the presence of sporadic E or rapidly changing ionisation at sunrise and sunset leads to a much poorer prediction. The median observed MUF decreases from about 19 MHz to less than 14.5 MHz as kp increases from 0 to 6.
Date of Conference: 28-30 April 2009