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A sufficient set of criteria is presented for the verification of frequency synthesizers. Failure modes are identified for automatic gain control (AGC), phase-locked loop (PLL), and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) circuits. Low- and high-frequency noise, thermal, and vibration effects are presented for VCOs and PLLs.
Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:58 , Issue: 10 )
Date of Publication: Oct. 2009