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Synchronizer characterization is non-trivial. The exponential response to parameter changes makes this task a challenge, which is further hampered by numerical instability and precision limitations of circuit simulators. The analysis of multi-stage synchronizers is extremely difficult due to the compounding of these exponential factors. We present results and discoveries from analyzing a variety of synchronizer circuits, and show some problematic circuit behaviors that can arise from synchronizer operation. We also present three ways to cross-check the analysis results, including a formula for calculating the metastable characteristics of a multi-stage synchronizer from its component stages.
Date of Conference: 17-20 May 2009