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Several tonometers are described which are simultaneously faster more accurate and more gentle than previous forms. They are easier to use and more convenient to read, and do not generally require anesthesia since their indication is recorded a fraction of a second after they contact the eye. Their principle is such that they can be used while covered with a sterilizable rubber film, thus minimizing risk of infection and clogging of the instrument. New systems of tonography are also described. The factors which allow readings by a component insensitive to variations in corneal curvature, bending forces, tissue tension and surface tension of tears suggest other biological applications such as blood pressure monitoring through intact vessels. A discussion of a number of electronic motion and pressure transducers is included.