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Millisecond microwave annealing: Driving microelectronics nano

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6 Author(s)
Thompson, K. ; University of Wisconsin, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ; Booske, J.H. ; Ives, R.L. ; Lohr, J.
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The efficient deposition of high frequency microwave energy into the top several microns of a semiconducting material was experimentally demonstrated as a highly effective mechanism for rapid thermal annealing. Simulations show that absorbed power densities of 4 and 32 kW/cm2 produce average Si heating rates of 325 000 and 10 000 000 °C/s up to 1300 °C. Conduction of thermal energy from the absorption region into the bulk substrate yields peak cooling rates that exceed 1 000 000 °C/s after the microwave pulse subsides. At the peak temperature, thermal gradients of 5 and 20 °Cm exist for the aforementioned power densities of 4 and 32 kW/cm2. The application of a 4.5 ms, 6 kW/cm2 pulse of 110 GHz radiation resulted in an experimentally measured Si heating rate of 275 000 °C/s. Applying this millisecond microwave anneal technology to ultrarapid annealing for shallow implanted dopants resulted in ultrashallow junctions that were 14–16 nm deep with sheet resistances between 500 and 700 Ω/square and an estimated active dopant concentration of 1020/cm3–2×1020/cm3.

Published in:

Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures  (Volume:23 ,  Issue: 3 )

Date of Publication:

May 2005

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