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This letter proposes an adaptive scheme to optimize the system throughput of IEEE 802.11 with differentiated channel access ability. Due to the difficulty of estimating the number of active stations and that approaches based on the estimation may not converge reported in previous research, the proposed scheme is developed to maximize the system throughput without the requirement of station number information while providing service differentiation among different traffic classes. Specially, the scheme is simple to implement and it only requires to measure the time the channel is in idle and collision states separately. Performance evaluation results show that the scheme is effective in achieving near to the theoretical maximum system throughput.