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The role of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) technology in the development of modern surface science is discussed. Surface science progressed slowly prior to about 1960 because of highly specialized skills needed to construct apparatus and carry out experiments. The rapid development of UHV technology, including stainless steel vacuum hardware and ion pumps in the 1960s, made it possible to construct apparatus with relative ease and attracted many capable scientists to the field of surface science. The number of analytical techniques for characterizing surfaces expanded dramatically in a span of less than ten years. The early development of these techniques and their impact on surface science is reviewed.
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films (Volume:12 , Issue: 4 )
Date of Publication: Jul 1994