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Modeling high power magnetron copper seed deposition: Effect of feature geometry on coverage

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3 Author(s)
Stout, Phillip J. ; Motorola, 3501 Ed Bluestein Boulevard, MD K10, Austin, Texas 78721 ; Da Zhang ; Ventzek, Peter L.G.

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The deposition of copper using a high power magnetron (HPM) has been studied using reactor and feature scale models. Discussed are results for Cu seed HPM deposition on trench, via, and dual inlaid features with different geometries (aspect ratio and side wall angles). At low wafer powers the Cu seed feature coverage is characterized by geometric shadowing due to the broad angular distribution of the dominant Cu athermal. At high wafer powers the metal deposited at feature bottom is sputtered by Ar+ and redistributed to the side walls. The deposition rate within a feature is nonlinear with time as metal deposited at the feature opening obstructs incoming metal from reaching the inside of the feature. Competing trends of higher copper flux at wafer center versus edge and higher Ar+ flux at wafer center versus edge result in a transition of the field thickness heights from edge≫center at low wafer powers to center≪edge at high wafer powers. The type and geometry of a feature in which metal is being deposited plays a major role in the final metal coverage. Vias have less coverage than trenches given the smaller opening for incoming metal to enter. For instance trenches with aspect ratio (AR) equal to 4 still have more Cu side wall coverage than vias of AR=1. In the dual inlaid geometry studied the via inner side wall and trench bottom corners are the most difficult regions to deposit a Cu seed. Both side wall angle and AR can have equal control of a thickness change. For instance in a via a similar side wall thickness decrease (at low wafer power) can be achieved with AR=4 and θvia=4°–0° or AR=1–4 and θ<- - inf>via=4°. © 2003 American Vacuum Society.

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Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films  (Volume:21 ,  Issue: 3 )