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In this paper, we report on the development of a short-pulse dual-wavelength source consisting of mode-locked diode lasers and a single Yb-doped double-clad fiber amplifier. Two mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor oscillators operating at a repetition rate of 577 MHz with center wavelengths of 1040 nm and 1079 nm are synchronized, producing short pulses that are injected into a Yb-doped polarization-maintaining fiber for amplification. Numerical simulations are used to determine the optimal fiber length and seeding configuration for dual-wavelength amplification in the fiber. Each signal is amplified to an average power of 0.5 W with pulse durations of around 5 ps. Performance issues associated with two-signal amplification in Yb-doped fibers are discussed, as well as perspectives for increasing the wavelength separation of the seed lasers.