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The well-known conventional Kalman filter requires an accurate system model and exact stochastic information. But in a number of situations, the system model has an unknown bias, which may degrade the performance of the Kalman filter or may cause the filter to diverge. The effect of the unknown bias may be more pronounced on the extended Kalman filter (EKF), which is a nonlinear filter. The two-stage extended Kalman filter (TEKF) with respect to this problem has been receiving considerable attention for a long time. Recently, the optimal two-stage Kalman filter (TKF) for linear stochastic systems with a constant bias or a random bias has been proposed by several researchers. A TEKF can also be similarly derived as the optimal TKF. In the case of a random bias, the TEKF assumes that the information of a random bias is known. But the information of a random bias is unknown or partially known in general. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an adaptive two-stage extended Kalman filter (ATEKF) using an adaptive fading EKF. To verify the performance of the proposed ATEKF, the ATEKF is applied to the INS-GPS (inertial navigation system-Global Positioning System) loosely coupled system with an unknown fault bias. The proposed ATEKF tracked/estimated the unknown bias effectively although the information about the random bias was unknown.