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This paper presents the formulation of simultaneous state and parameter estimation problems for flexible structures in terms of least-squares minimization problems. The approach combines an on-line order determination algorithm, with least-squares algorithms for finding estimates of modal approximation functions, modal amplitudes, and modal parameters. The approach combines previous results on separable nonlinear least squares estimation with a regression analysis formulation of the state estimation problem. The technique makes use of sequential Householder transformations. This allows for sequential accumulation of matrices required during the identification process. The technique is used to identify the modal parameters of a flexible beam.