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The application of micro- and nanotechnology in energy conversion is discussed. Fundamental understanding of micro- and nanoscale transport has significantly improved the operation reliability, durability, and system simplicity of fuel cell systems. On the other hand, energy harvesting from streaming potential holds the hope to be practical if the efficiency can be further improved to the level predicted by current theory. The development of micro- and nanofluidics has been consistently fast in pace and radical in progress. It can be expected to open many doors for the exploration of new energy conversion technologies.