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In this paper, a review of fiber laser technology as relevant for applications in ultrafast optics is given. We discuss core enabling fiber technologies, such as fiber amplifiers, all-fiber dispersion control, and highly nonlinear and large-core fibers. We concentrate on systems built around passively mode-locked fiber lasers and fiber frequency combs, which are further amplified in large-core fiber amplifiers. Our review further encompasses coherent supercontinuum generation and techniques for absolute phase control of fiber lasers and amplifiers. Applications concerned with spectral generation in the range from the vacuum UV to the terahertz range are also described.