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Short circuit fault applied on the DC side of the 12-phase generator-rectifier system will cause large transient peak fault current. To design the new protection system, it is important to study the transient character of the fault current. In this paper, the characteristics of the DC side sudden short circuit of the 12-phase generator-rectifier system under the unloaded condition have been concluded. Expressions for the initial DC Side Short Circuit Currents (DSCC) and the rate of rise of the fault currents are presented. An equivalent model of the 12-phase synchronous generator (SG) at the moment of short circuit is given. Comparisons of simulated and computed results demonstrate the validity of the analytic approaches developed. Thus, a theoretical basis is provided for fast detection of the short circuit fault.