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This paper covers circuits and systems techniques for the construction of high reliability biosensing and microneurostimulation medical devices. Such implantable devices are dedicated for interconnections to intracortical neural tissues. Low-power high-reliability wireless links are used to power up such implanted devices while bidirectional data are exchanged between these microsystems and external controllers. Global view of main devices will be described, case studies related to monitoring and microstimulation in the primary visual cortex will be discussed, and special attention will be paid to massively parallel recording of neural signals, microstimulation through a large arrays of electrodes and power management of these bioelectronic devices.