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Correction of the Sea State Impact in the L-Band Brightness Temperature by Means of Delay-Doppler Maps of Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflected Over the Sea Surface

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6 Author(s)
Marchan-Hernandez, J.F. ; Dept. of Signal Theor. & Commun., Univ. Politec. de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona ; Rodriguez-Alvarez, N. ; Camps, A. ; Bosch-Lluis, X.
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This paper presents an efficient procedure based on 2-D convolutions to obtain delay-Doppler maps (DDMs) of Global Navigation Satellite Signals reflected (GNSS-R) over the sea surface and collected by a spaceborne receiver. Two DDM-derived observables (area and volume) are proposed to link the sea-state-induced brightness temperature to the measured normalized DDM. Finally, the requirements to use Global Positioning System reflectometry to accurately correct for the sea state impact on the L-band brightness temperature (quantization levels, decimation, truncation, and noise impact) are analyzed in view of its implementation in the Passive Advanced Unit instrument of the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite (SeoSAT/INGENIO) project.

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:46 ,  Issue: 10 )