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In this paper, we design a new motion planning approach for the mobile robot, which is based on an artificial immune evolution algorithm. Based on the nonholonomic constraint, the motion-planning problem of the mobile robot is transformed into an optimal control problem of the nonlinear system. Building the antibody coding and affinity function, the algorithm is described in detail and the simulation experiment is carried out. The experimental results indicate that the algorithm is effective and feasible applying to the optimal nonholonomic motion-planning problem of the mobile robot.